aerospace: A analysis area dedicated to the examine of Earth’s environment and the area past or to plane that journey within the environment and area.

antioxidant: Any of many chemical compounds that may shut down oxidation — a biologically damaging response. They do that by donating an electron to a free radical (a reactive molecular fragment) with out turning into unstable. Many plant-based meals are good sources of pure antioxidants, together with nutritional vitamins C and E.

app: Quick for software, or a pc program designed for a particular process.

aspirin: A typical non-prescription drug, also referred to as acetylsalicylic acid. For greater than a century, it has been broadly used to deal with complications, joint ache, muscle ache, toothaches and extra. It additionally reduces fevers and irritation.

astronaut: Somebody skilled to journey into area for analysis and exploration.

autonomous: Performing independently. Autonomous autos, as an illustration, pilot themselves primarily based on directions which were programmed into their pc steerage system.

biologist: A scientist concerned within the examine of residing issues.

bladder: A versatile bag-like construction for holding liquids. (in biology) The organ that collects urine till will probably be excreted.

blood vessel: A tubular construction that carries blood via the tissues and organs.

cardiovascular: An adjective that refers to issues that have an effect on or are a part of the center and the system of vessels and arteries that transfer blood via the center and tissues of the physique.

cell: The smallest structural and useful unit of an organism. Usually too small to see with the unaided eye, it consists of a watery fluid surrounded by a membrane or wall. Relying on their dimension, animals are manufactured from wherever from hundreds to trillions of cells. Most organisms, comparable to yeasts, molds, micro organism and a few algae, are composed of just one cell.

centrifuge: A tool that quickly spins a container. The forces created by that spinning acts on no matter is contained in the container, forcing its most dense components to gather on the backside.

chemical: A substance shaped from two or extra atoms that unite (bond) in a set proportion and construction. For instance, water is a chemical made when two hydrogen atoms bond to 1 oxygen atom. Its chemical components is H2O. Chemical additionally might be an adjective to explain properties of supplies which can be the results of numerous reactions between totally different compounds.

persistent: A situation, comparable to an sickness (or its signs, together with ache), that lasts for a very long time.

colleague: Somebody who works with one other; a co-worker or staff member.

fixed: Steady or uninterrupted. (in arithmetic) A quantity that’s recognized and unchanging, often primarily based on some mathematical definition. For instance, π (pi) is a continuing equal to three.14. . . and outlined because the circumference of a circle divided by its diameter.

constipation: Problem defecating as a result of the stool is simply too dense or as a result of the intestinal tract doesn’t contract sufficiently to effectively transfer wastes via it.

cosmic rays: Very high-energy particles, largely protons, that bombard Earth from all instructions. These particles originate exterior our photo voltaic system. They’re equal to the nucleus of an atom. They journey via area at excessive charges of pace (usually near the pace of sunshine).

cosmonaut: Russian time period for astronaut.

tradition: (v. in microbiology) To develop cells exterior the physique or their regular atmosphere, often in a beaker, a laboratory dish or some huge vessel. To maintain the cells wholesome, they should be saved on the correct temperature, given the right vitamins and supplied ample room to develop.

CT scan: (Often known as a CAT scan). The time period is brief for computerized axial tomography. It’s a particular kind of X-ray scanning know-how that produces cross-sectional views of the within of a bone or physique.

diagnose: To investigate clues or signs within the seek for their trigger. The conclusion often leads to a prognosis — identification of the causal drawback or illness.

DNA: (quick for deoxyribonucleic acid) A protracted, double-stranded and spiral-shaped molecule inside most residing cells that carries genetic directions. It’s constructed on a spine of phosphorus, oxygen, and carbon atoms. In all residing issues, from crops and animals to microbes, these directions inform cells which molecules to make.

mud storm: A shifting, blowing cloud of mud carried by the wind.

engineer: An individual who makes use of science to resolve issues. As a verb, to engineer means to design a tool, materials or course of that may resolve some drawback or unmet want. (v.) To carry out these duties, or the identify for an individual who performs such duties.

area: (in physics) A area in area the place sure bodily results function, comparable to magnetism (created by a magnetic area), gravity (by a gravitational area), mass (by a Higgs area) or electrical energy (by {an electrical} area).

focus: (in conduct) To look or focus intently on some explicit level or factor.

drive: Some exterior affect that may change the movement of a physique, maintain our bodies shut to 1 one other, or produce movement or stress in a stationary physique.

freeze-dried: (adj.) A time period that describes a course of broadly used to protect meals, medicine and different heat-sensitive merchandise. That course of depends on dissolving or suspending a substance in a liquid. Then the solvent or liquid is crystallized after which transformed instantly from a stable right into a gasoline (with out melting).

gauge: A machine to measure the dimensions or quantity of one thing. For example, tide gauges monitor the ever-changing peak of coastal water ranges all through the day. Or any system or occasion that can be utilized to estimate the dimensions or magnitude of one thing else. (v. to gauge) The act of measuring or estimating the dimensions of one thing.

gravity: The drive that draws something with mass, or bulk, towards another factor with mass. The extra mass that one thing has, the better its gravity.

coronary heart assault: Everlasting harm to the center muscle that happens when a number of areas of it change into starved of oxygen, often on account of a short lived blockage in blood move.

horizontal: A line or aircraft that runs left to proper, a lot because the horizon seems to do when gazing into the gap.

impair: (n. impairment) To wreck or weaken in a roundabout way.

induce: To provide or trigger one thing to occur. In physics, electromagnetic induction is the manufacturing of electrical energy with various magnetic fields.

Worldwide Area Station: A man-made satellite tv for pc that orbits Earth. Run by america and Russia, this station gives a analysis laboratory from which scientists can conduct experiments in biology, physics and astronomy — and make observations of Earth.

web: An digital communications community. It permits computer systems wherever on the earth to hyperlink into different networks to seek out info, obtain information and share information (together with photos).

IV: Quick for intravenous, which means into the veins. It refers to what number of medicine or liquids (comparable to saline) are administered utilizing a hypodermic syringe or catheter (tube). The time period can also confer with the liquid being administered this fashion or to the machine used to slowly launch an answer into the bloodstream. The final is also known as an IV drip.

kidney: Every in a pair of organs in mammals that filters blood and produces urine.

liver: An organ of the physique of animals with backbones that performs plenty of essential capabilities. It could possibly retailer fats and sugar as power, break down dangerous substances for excretion by the physique, and secrete bile, a greenish fluid launched into the intestine, the place it helps digest fat and neutralize acids.

lunar: Of or referring to Earth’s moon.

magnetic area: An space of affect created by sure supplies, referred to as magnets, or by the motion of electrical costs.

marker: (in biomedicine) The presence of some substance that often can solely be current as a result of it indicators some illness, pollutant or occasion (such because the attachment of some stain or molecular flag). As such, this substance will function an indication — or marker — of that associated factor.

Mars: The fourth planet from the solar, only one planet out from Earth. Like Earth, it has seasons and moisture. However its diameter is just about half as huge as Earth’s.

mercury: Typically referred to as quicksilver, mercury is a component with the atomic quantity 80. At room temperature, this silvery steel is a liquid. Mercury can also be very poisonous. Typically referred to as quicksilver, mercury is a component with the atomic quantity 80. At room temperature, this silvery steel is a liquid. Mercury can also be very poisonous.

steel: One thing that conducts electrical energy properly, tends to be shiny (reflective) and malleable (which means it may be reshaped with warmth and never an excessive amount of drive or stress). 

microgravity: Gravity that could be a fraction of the drive skilled at sea degree on Earth.

mannequin: A simulation of a real-world occasion (often utilizing a pc) that has been developed to foretell a number of possible outcomes. Or a person that’s meant to show how one thing would work in or look on others.

moon: The pure satellite tv for pc of any planet.

motor: (in biology) A time period referring to motion.

muscle: A kind of tissue used to supply motion by contracting its cells, often called muscle fibers. Muscle is wealthy in protein, which is why predatory species search prey containing a lot of this tissue.

mutation: (v. mutate) Some change that happens to a gene in an organism’s DNA. Some mutations happen naturally. Others might be triggered by exterior components, comparable to air pollution, radiation, medicines or one thing within the food regimen. A gene with this modification is known as a mutant.

NASA: Quick for the Nationwide Aeronautics and Area Administration. Created in 1958, this U.S. company has change into a pacesetter in area analysis and in stimulating public curiosity in area exploration. It was via NASA that america despatched individuals into orbit and finally to the moon. It additionally has despatched analysis craft to review planets and different celestial objects in our photo voltaic system.

organ: (in biology) Numerous components of an organism that carry out a number of explicit capabilities. For example, an ovary is an organ that makes eggs, the mind is an organ that is sensible of nerve indicators and a plant’s roots are organs that soak up vitamins and moisture.

particle: A minute quantity of one thing.

physiology: The department of biology that offers with the on a regular basis capabilities of residing organisms and the way their components operate. Scientists who work on this area are often called physiologists.

preliminary: An early step or stage that precedes one thing extra essential.

stress: Power utilized uniformly over a floor, measured as drive per unit of space.

prototype: A primary or early mannequin of some machine, system or product that also must be perfected.

psychological: An adjective that refers to how the human thoughts works, particularly in relation to guiding actions and conduct. 

radiation: (in physics) One of many three main ways in which power is transferred. (The opposite two are conduction and convection.) In radiation, electromagnetic waves carry power from one place to a different. In contrast to conduction and convection, which want materials to assist switch the power, radiation can switch power throughout empty area.

Crimson Planet: A nickname for Mars.

danger: The prospect or mathematical probability that some dangerous factor may occur. For example, publicity to radiation poses a danger of most cancers. Or the hazard — or peril — itself. (For example: Amongst most cancers dangers that the individuals confronted had been radiation and consuming water tainted with arsenic.)

rodent: A mammal of the order Rodentia, a bunch that features mice, rats, squirrels, guinea pigs, hamsters and porcupines.

simulation: (v. simulate) An evaluation, usually made utilizing a pc, of some situations, capabilities or look of a bodily system. A pc program would do that by utilizing mathematical operations that may describe the system and the way it may change over time or in response to totally different anticipated conditions.

software program: The mathematical directions that direct a pc’s {hardware}, together with its processor, to carry out sure operations.

photo voltaic system: The eight main planets and their moons in orbit round our solar, along with smaller our bodies within the type of dwarf planets, asteroids, meteoroids and comets.

subtle: A time period for one thing that’s superior, complicated and/or elegant.

complement: (verb) So as to add to one thing. (in diet) One thing taken in capsule or liquid type — usually a vitamin or mineral — to enhance the food regimen. For example, it could present extra of some nutrient that’s believed to profit well being. It might additionally present some substance to the food regimen that’s claimed to advertise well being.

symptom: A bodily or psychological indicator usually regarded to be attribute of a illness. Typically a single symptom — particularly a common one, comparable to fever or ache — generally is a signal of any of many several types of damage or illness.

tissue: Made from cells, it’s any of the distinct kinds of supplies that make up animals, crops or fungi. Cells inside a tissue work as a unit to carry out a selected operate in residing organisms. Completely different organs of the human physique, as an illustration, usually are created from many several types of tissues.

software: An object that an individual or different animal makes or obtains after which makes use of to hold out some objective comparable to reaching meals, defending itself or grooming.

tropics: The area close to Earth’s equator. Temperatures listed below are usually heat to sizzling, year-round.

ultrasound: (adj. ultrasonic) Sounds at frequencies above the vary that may be detected by the human ear. Additionally the identify given to a medical process that makes use of ultrasound to “see” throughout the physique.

vacuum: Area with little or regardless of in it. Laboratories or manufacturing crops might use vacuum gear to pump out air, creating an space often called a vacuum chamber.

vitamin: Any of a bunch of chemical compounds which can be important for regular progress and diet and are required in small portions within the food regimen as a result of both they can’t be made by the physique or the physique can’t simply make them in adequate quantities to assist well being.

climate: Circumstances within the environment at a localized place and a selected time. It’s often described by way of explicit options, comparable to air stress, humidity, moisture, any precipitation (rain, snow or ice), temperature and wind pace. Climate constitutes the precise situations that happen at any time and place. It’s totally different from local weather, which is an outline of the situations that are inclined to happen in some common area throughout a selected month or season.

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