Atlantic: One of many world’s 5 oceans, it’s second in measurement solely to the Pacific. It separates Europe and Africa to the east from North and South America to the west.
blow: (noun) A time period for the supplies exhaled by whales by their blowholes. This may embody air, mucus, germs and generally even seawater.
blowhole: (in biology) Nostrils on the highest of the pinnacle of a cetacean (whale, porpoise or dolphin) by which the animal breathes. Toothed whales (like orcas) have one, baleen whales, corresponding to proper whales, have a pair. (in ecology) A gap in ice by which marine mammals periodically come to breathe. (in Earth science and engineering) A vent (generally fitted with a one-way valve) by which air or different gases can escape a tunnel, cave or pipe.
cortisol: Also referred to as hydrocortisone, it is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It will possibly function the physique’s foremost warning that it’s underneath stress. It helps regulate a variety of physique capabilities, together with how we course of the vitality in meals, create recollections and management irritation.
knowledge: Info and/or statistics collected collectively for evaluation however not essentially organized in a means that provides them that means. For digital data (the kind saved by computer systems), these knowledge usually are numbers saved in a binary code, portrayed as strings of zeros and ones.
drone: A remote-controlled, pilotless plane or missile.
evaporate: To show from liquid into vapor.
evolve: (adj. evolving) To vary regularly over generations, or an extended time period. In residing organisms, such an evolution normally entails random adjustments to genes that may then be handed alongside to a person’s offspring. These can result in new traits, corresponding to altered coloration, new susceptibility to illness or safety from it, or completely different formed options (corresponding to legs, antennae, toes or inside organs).
graduate pupil: Somebody working towards a complicated diploma by taking lessons and performing analysis. This work is finished after the coed has already graduated from faculty (normally with a four-year diploma).
hormone: (in zoology and drugs) A chemical produced in a gland after which carried within the bloodstream to a different a part of the physique. Hormones management many necessary physique actions, corresponding to progress. Hormones act by triggering or regulating chemical reactions within the physique.
humpback: A species of baleen whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), maybe greatest identified for its novel “songs” that journey nice distances underwater. Enormous animals, they will develop as much as greater than 15 meters (or round 50 toes) lengthy and weigh greater than 35 metric tons.
hydrocarbon: Any of a variety of enormous molecules containing chemically certain carbon and hydrogen atoms. Crude oil, for instance, is a naturally occurring mixture of many hydrocarbons.
marine mammal: Any of many varieties of mammals that spend most of its life within the ocean atmosphere. These embody whales and dolphins, walruses and sea lions, seals and sea otters, manatees and dugongs — even polar bears.
mentor: A person who lends his or her expertise to advise somebody beginning out in a discipline. In science, academics or researchers typically mentor college students or youthful scientists by serving to them to refine their analysis questions. Mentors can also provide suggestions on how younger investigators put together to conduct analysis or interpret their knowledge.
petri dish: A shallow, round dish used to develop micro organism or different microorganisms.
pod: (in zoology) The title given to a gaggle of toothed whales that journey collectively, most of them all through their life, as a gaggle.
pollutant: A substance that taints one thing — such because the air, water, our our bodies or merchandise. Some pollution are chemical substances, corresponding to pesticides. Others could also be radiation, together with extra warmth or mild. Even weeds and different invasive species may be thought-about a sort of organic air pollution.
respiratory tract: Elements of the physique concerned in respiratory (additionally referred to as the respiratory system). It consists of the lungs, nostril, sinuses, throat and different giant airways.
proper whale: One in all three baleen whale species within the genus Eubalaena. Every tends to reside in a unique ocean basin. The animals bought their title from the opinion of whale hunters that these have been the “proper” whale to catch. The explanations: As soon as lifeless they float, so the hunters received’t lose them at sea; these whales include plenty of the oil and baleen that could possibly be bought in 18th and 19th century seaports; and the animals swim slowly and close to to shores. They’ll reside greater than 50 years (maybe a century) and develop to about 15.25 meters (50 toes) and a few 63 metric tons (140,000 kilos). These within the Northern Hemisphere have been practically worn out by whaling. Their numbers stay low.
sea: An ocean (or area that’s a part of an ocean). Not like lakes and streams, seawater — or ocean water — is salty.
seawater: The salty water present in oceans.
species: A gaggle of comparable organisms able to producing offspring that may survive and reproduce.
standardize: (v.) To make one thing match or conform to a specific rule, worth (corresponding to a unit of measure) or protocol (system of performing a process). As a noun, normal is the worth or rule or protocol towards which different issues might be requested to match up.
stress: (in biology) An element — corresponding to uncommon temperatures, actions, moisture or air pollution — that impacts the well being of a species or ecosystem. (in psychology) A psychological, bodily, emotional or behavioral response to an occasion or circumstance (stressor) that disturbs an individual or animal’s standard state of being or locations elevated calls for on an individual or animal; psychological stress may be both optimistic or detrimental.
instrument: An object that an individual or different animal makes or obtains after which makes use of to hold out some objective corresponding to reaching meals, defending itself or performing some type of measurements or analyses.
poisonous: Toxic or in a position to hurt or kill cells, tissues or entire organisms. The measure of danger posed by such a poison is its toxicity.
tract: A selected, well-defined space. It may be a patch of land, corresponding to the realm on which a home is positioned. Or it may be a little bit of actual property within the physique. As an example, necessary components of an animal’s physique will embody its respiratory tract (lungs and airways), reproductive tract (gonads and hormone techniques necessary to replica) and gastro-
vapors: Fumes launched when a liquid transforms to a fuel, normally because of heating.
unstable: Chemical that simply evaporates.
whale: A typical, however pretty imprecise, time period for a category of enormous mammals that lives within the ocean. This group consists of dolphins and porpoises.